【回選單】

佛性

2002年 尊貴的薩迦崔津法王

新加坡佛學講座

地點:新加坡西藏中心

今天,我首先向與會大眾致上誠摯的歡迎之意,還有主辦的「西藏中心」,謝謝您們的安排與邀請,使我今晚能來此與各位分享佛陀的法教。

  眾所周知,在這個世界上的人類有著許許多多的欲求,然而無論是哪一人種、持何種哲學、與信仰何種宗教的人,都有一個共通的期望,那就是每個人都希望離開痛苦與獲得快樂。不但人類如此,即使是低等動物如昆蟲等,也都有這樣一個共通的願望,他們都不喜歡痛苦,也都希望能由痛苦中解脫;個體生命如此,國家也一樣,它致力於各項發展,目的也是希

I would like to take this opportunity of extending my warmest greetings and best wishes to all of you. I would particularly like to thank the Tibet Centre which has very kindly invited me to come here tonight to meet all of you and to have a chance to share the teachings of the Buddha with you.

As you all know, we as human beings have many requirements in our lives and many things to accomplish. But whether we are of different races, different philosophies or different religions, what is common to all of us is that we all wish to be free from suffering and we all wish to have happiness. This is the same not only for human beings but for all living beings - from the tiniest of insects to the most intelligent of human beings. They all have the same wish to be

free from suffering and to have happiness.

Therefore, every sentient being makes efforts to achieve happiness just like every nation

望人民得到快樂。因此,總歸的說,這世間運作的總原理便是「離苦得樂」。

「離苦得樂」的方法有兩大類,一是外在物質的追求,另一是精神生命的提昇。當知,我們無論多麼致力於外在物質的追求,都無法帶來心中真正的喜樂,甚至還會讓自己變得更為悲慘痛苦。獲得喜樂的唯一方法是內在精神生命的提昇轉化。職是之故,在我們生命中最重要的一件事,當是努力地提昇內在的精神生命,唯有如此才能獲得真正永恆的喜樂和安詳;否則即使我們每個人都想要獲得快樂,到頭來卻終無一人能得到喜樂。以下就是要介紹偉大上師的教導,教導我們如何提昇內在精神生命,以獲取真正喜樂之道。

我們偉大的導師釋迦牟尼佛,他已獲得一切斷證之功德,他超越所有相、根除各種過患和障礙,而證得最圓滿究竟的果位,並為了所有眾生成就諸多佛行事業。

makes efforts towards development in order to find happiness for it's people. Everybody is actually working to achieve happiness.

However, it is very clear that unless we make inner mental and spiritual development, no matter how much effort we put into material development, it will not produce happiness but instead bring us more misery and suffering. Therefore, in our lives the most important thing is to make efforts towards inner spiritual development because only then can we find real happiness and real peace. Otherwise, even though every one of us is seeking happiness we will not find it. Therefore, we must make every effort towards our inner spiritual development which we can only do by following the teachings of the great masters. At this present moment and place all of us are following the Buddha's teachings.

在他這些身、語、意的諸佛行事業中,最重要者首推語的事業。他經由言教而大轉法輪,將自己證得的自內證智慧傳授給所有眾生,以期所有眾生能如他一樣永離苦痛而獲證究竟佛果。

佛陀教導我們最精要的法門就是認識心的本性,其實我們的心從無始以來本自清淨從未染污,如果我們能如此地了知心的本質,當下我們就可以從輪迴的痛苦中解脫而成證佛果。然而,我們的本性因受到無明幻相所蒙蔽,被輪迴業報所控制,不能了知心的本性,故永遠在痛苦中而不得解脫。不過,雖然我們的心受到如是的障蔽,但是心的本性卻始終是清淨的,無明只是偶然且是暫時的,最後無明的障蔽終必去除盡淨,而回歸到心的本然明淨。

許多經典都說「所有眾生皆有佛性」,而「心的本性」就是指每個人本自具足的「佛性」。我們應當努力地從痛苦和障蔽中解脫,以讓「佛性」再度彰顯,而達到如佛陀般的大解脫大證悟;這樣作為不僅是我們個人生命的一大成就,也

The Lord Buddha departed from all forms of faults and obscurations and obtained every good quality and performed many great activities for the sake of all sentient beings. The Lord Buddha performed physical, speech and wisdom activities of which the most important activity was the speech activity. What speech activity means is that the Lord Buddha turned the Wheel of the Dharma by teaching sentient beings the inner realization he had gained. This teaching of the Dharma through words to all sentient beings so that they can all also become permanently free from suffering is the Buddha’s speech activity. Since the true nature of the mind is never stained with defilements and delusions all sentient beings have the capacity to become Buddhas. The true nature of our mind, right from the very beginning, is pure. However, at the moment we do not see this because we are completely covered with defilements and delusions. As

是利益眾生最好的方法,是同時圓滿人我兩利的最佳途徑。然而此刻我們還看不到這個「佛性」,我們「心的本性」還完全被障蔽住;我們也因為這樣的障蔽,造了甚多的過患和承受無窮的痛苦,這些問題的根源都是由於我們看不見根本的佛性明光所致。

我們無法認清及實踐本有的「心之本性」,但對於不實在的「自我」卻毫無懷疑地加以執著,這是我們生命中最大的無明,也是生命中最大的錯誤。要是我們能用心尋找檢視,我們將會發現其實根本沒有一個稱為「自我」的東西。我們可以試著尋找自身內部器官、身體的外部、與身體內外之間;您會發現身體的每一部位,都找不到組成自我的分子,更找不到稱為自我的實體;然而我們卻仍毫不懷疑地一直執著自我,而且當我們變成那樣的時候,仍不知道回頭去認知那個心之本性明光,只知道一味地執著於虛擬的自我,這真是天大的弔詭。當你一旦產生「自我」之後,接著就會有「他人」的出現,因為自我和他人本來就是互相依存的,正如左邊和右邊的關係一樣,當右邊存在

long as the true nature of our mind is covered with defilements and obscurations we will always be caught up in this realm of existence and, as long as we are in this realm of existence we will never be free from suffering because in this realm of existence there is nothing but suffering. Were the true nature of our mind not pure then we would never become pure. But since the true nature of our mind is pure and the impurities and obscurations only temporary, there is a possibility of departing from or clearing up the obscurations that we have. It is said in many scriptures that every sentient being possesses the Buddha nature and that the true nature of our mind is, in fact, the Buddha nature. So, in actuality we have the basic requirement with which we can, if we make enough effort, try to be permanently free from all suffering and obscurations and become fully enlightened like the Lord Buddha. Becoming fully enlightened will not

左邊也就因之而存在。所以自我和他人是同時產生的,之後便會產生慾望執著等等;於是開始執著屬於自己的東西,如自己的生命,自己的親戚朋友等,而且因為利益的衝突,跟著會對他人產生敵意瞋恨等等…。由此可知,不清淨的根本三毒是根源於自我執著,自我執著又根源於不了解自性明光所致。可見不了解自性明光是所有問題的起點,自我執著則是一切染污的根本所在,有了自我就產生我所,由人我對立而產生怨恨他人,接著就在人我利害中頭出頭沒,人生的痛苦於焉產生。

樹木的根如果有毒,那長在樹上的花、葉、果實等,也會跟著有毒。同理,心如果由三毒所主宰,那由之而起的任何行為也都將是染污的惡業,這些惡業將會為此生和來生創造出更多的痛苦。歸結地說,心的染污是罪魁禍首,由心而逐一向外展開,語言與身體行為都根於心;若心染污了,我們的行動就如同在播下染污的種籽,最後這些種子都會結成染污的果實

only be a great achievement for ourselves but also for the countless sentient beings whom we will be able to help. Therefore, gaining enlightenment is like accomplishing a double purpose - for us as well as for other sentient beings.

However, at the moment we do not see the Buddha nature because the true nature of our mind is completely covered with obscurations. The source of all our faults and suffering is that we do not see the basic clear light of the Buddha nature as it is, and instead, without any basis or reason we cling to ourselves. In clinging to ourselves we are committing the greatest ignorance and making the greatest mistake that we could ever make, for if we were to examine the reasons for clinging to ourselves we simply will not find a 'self' because there is no such thing as a 'self', a ‘oneself’. If we were to search every part of our bodies, whether it be

我們由無始至今日,便是這樣循環不已的進行著,一世接著一世在染污的體系中永無出頭的一天。

法教告訴我們「心續是不間斷的」;我們的肉體在一期壽命結束後會變換樣貌,但心續卻持續不間斷,從無始以來,心並無所謂開始或結束,只是這當中深受過去業力的控制,而難於跳脫原來的生活思維模式,故陷於自我之執著中而不自知,同時也因執著和瞋恨之故,隨著時光之延續而累積愈來愈多的業力,也就讓自己更難於解脫。

我們與其它生命最大不同是,我們生而為人身,我們具足修行的很好條件,我們不應該虛度此生,今生必須設法由幻相障蔽中覺醒過來。如果我們仍舊生活於無明障蔽中,那在未來世必依然還在輪迴,也仍然陷在痛苦的深淵中。我們今生一定要利用此千載難逢之人身,把握這個法教的精華,徹底地用功以期脫離輪迴,走入圓滿證悟中,而永遠與苦痛說再見。

the internal organs or the external organs, the skeleton or the skin, we will not be able to find any substance or any concrete thing such as a 'self'. Yet still, without any basis or reason we continue to cling to our 'self' and do not see the basic clear light. Just as it is with the right and left - when you have a right there is always bound to be a left so also when we see a 'self' we see an 'other' - the two are dependent on each other. So, when there is a 'self' and an 'other' then automatically you will have desire and attachment to one's own side, one's own life, one's own relatives, one's own friends and feel hatred for others like one's enemies and so forth. These impure things all arise from the most basic of the three poisons, which is that of ignorance, with which we cling to the 'self'. From this then arises the attachment to one's own side and hatred for others and, from these basic poisons stem the ten defilements. If the root of the tree is

所以,今天最緊要的是如何脫離無明障蔽,也許這樣作不見得能馬上改變現況,但卻可根除未來痛苦之因。一顆已經將近成熟的農作物,不管現在長得好不好,我們都不能作太多的改變,但是如果在生長的初期,我們的努力將會大大改變它的結果,往者已矣,來者可追;過去已成形的苦痛雖然不能改變,但未來尚未定型的部份我們仍有很大的揮灑空間。我們現今所受的痛苦是屬於結果階段,例如我們的色相不論長得如何都已確定了,這部份我們不能改,但是未來的發展則操之在我。如果我們真想要從痛苦深淵中徹底解脫,那就必須消除造成痛苦的因,而造成我們痛苦的根本原因就是三毒;要是我們能夠脫離三毒的障蔽,那各種的苦痛便會自然煙消雲散,所以我們必須竭盡所能地去除三毒。

不要說去除三毒甚難,就連認清障蔽染污都不容易;甚至要革除我們此生的惡習都是艱難的,更何況是無始以來就已經存在的染污呢?

我們想想看要我們生起貪念很容易,要生起瞋

poisonous then whatever grows on this tree, like it’s flowers and leaves, will also be poisonous. Similarly, whatever actions or non-virtuous deeds arise from these three poisons - they create all the suffering in this life and the suffering of future lives. Therefore, these poisons are the root of all our actions - physical actions, speech actions and mental actions. Taking action then, is like planting a seed. When you plant a seed in due course it will ripen. So in this way the way we live our lives in this lifetime determines how we live our next lifetime, and hence we keep going on from beginningless time up to now. We believe this for two reasons. One, as it is said in the teachings - we have had lives before this one and two, we will have many lives in the future because the body may die but the mind continues. Mind and matter are two completely different things. Mind will never become matter and matter will never become

恨很簡單,要生起驕傲和嫉妒也輕而易舉,染污的生起是很容易的,只要極小的因就可以很輕易地生起染污,但是要生起心性的功德卻非常困難,例如慈悲和愛、虔誠與信心等等,雖然生起這些功德並非易事,但是我們仍須努力,以下提供一些去除染污與生起功德之法。

去除染污之道,有「共法」與「不共法」兩種,先說「共法」:我們必須了解沒有人喜歡痛苦,人人都希望由痛苦中解脫,而徹底解脫痛苦之道就是去除痛苦之因,也就是根除三毒染污。染污是我們此生最大的敵人,我們應該與之奮戰到底,直到徹底擊敗染污為止。我們真正的敵人不在外頭,因為外在敵人並不能把我們送入惡道、地獄,而染污卻可輕而易舉地將我們推入無邊痛苦的地獄中,所以我們必須認清真正的敵人是染污。

以上提供淨除染污的要領是明白因與果,認清什麼導致我們痛苦?當我們看清這些之後,就不易起執著,就有可能去除痛苦之因。好比我

mind. The mind has to continue as it is, and so in this way even though we change our physical body from time to time the mind still continues. Although the mind is also changing the continuity of the mind is constant, because even though we die and leave this body, we take another form. Since beginningless time we have been caught up in this realm of existence mainly because instead of seeing the clear light and recognizing our inner Buddha nature we continue to cling to our ‘self’. It is due to this that we have attachment and hatred which causes us to perform more and more actions which in turn increase our misery and suffering, because all the suffering of our past and our present are the direct product of actions that we ourselves have committed. Therefore, in this lifetime when we have been fortunate enough to be born as humans who are not only different from other living beings but have all the right conditions to

們現在被某種疾病所苦,我們首先必須找出致病之因並加以戒除,否則即使眼前的病治好了,很快地又會再度復發。同理,假如我們真的希望由痛苦中徹底解脫,那必須找到真正痛苦之因,然後徹底的拔除病因,這樣才有可能獲得真正永恆的快樂,而造成我們痛苦的病因就是染污,我們當認清、減少、並戒除之。

去除染污的「不共法」,對我們一般人來說便較為不容易,它是從智慧下手,當無明染污生起之際,我們與其隨它流轉──就是說當染污生起時,你會想更多的這些、那些,並且將之付諸行動,於是跟隨著這些染污的念頭起舞,這樣我們就創造出更多的惡因惡果來。與其這樣,不如將我們的心思轉個方向,看住這些無明染污由何而起,例如當我們對某人生氣憤怒時,我們會認為一切都是那個人的錯,而且會愈想愈生氣,愈想愈糟糕,最後這個怒氣會愈來愈大而導致你採取一些行動。所以與其跟隨這些念頭走,不如回頭試著檢視這個忿怒由何而來?它是由身體的那一部位生起的?由何處開始?它安住在那堙H它的本質是什麼?

practise the dharma, we surely must not waste this great opportunity to awaken from these delusions. If we continue living as we presently do, we will continue to be born in this realm of existence and in the future also continue to be caught up in the suffering of this very realm of existence.

Therefore, when we have this great opportunity we must not waste it on other things. We must try to seize the essence out of this great opportunity. The most important thing to realize is that everybody wishes to be free from suffering. It is also important to realize that the very reason for our suffering is the result of us not changing our lifestyles and continuing with our wrong ways of thinking. So, one has to work on eliminating the causes of suffering. If we were to use the example of crops for instance, if the crop is already ripened then we cannot change its growth and progress very much.

當你如此地去察看或檢視這個忿怒時,你將找不到任何具體真實被稱為是忿怒的東西,你也無法掌握與保有它;你不能形容忿怒像什麼,或說它是某個形狀、顏色、存在某個地方,或在身體內的某一部位等等,最後你會頓然發現原來忿怒了不可得。所以面對忿怒之道,與其跟隨忿怒而轉,然後去傷害他人與自己,倒不如用這個方法來檢視忿怒本身,最後忿怒便會自然無疾而終,而回到心清靜澄明的狀態;這是透過智慧以滌除染污的方法。

以上是透過共與不共的方法以去除染污,而前提則是必須把無明染污當成過失,認為它是此生最大的敵人,是我們今生一定要去除的禍水,是生命中應該徹底趕盡殺絕的東西;還有我們也應該試著發展心性的功德──愛與慈悲。因為不只是我們自己希望得到快樂,所有眾生也都同樣希望快樂,所以只為自己著想是不正確的。我們一定也要為他人設身處地,盡心盡力地幫助他人獲取快樂。當知我們唯一能獲得真正快樂的方式是經由使他人得到快樂而

However, if the crop is yet to ripen and has just been planted then it’s growth as well as many other factors depend on how much care and how much work is put in it. So similarly, the suffering that we undergo are actually in the result stage. Using our body as an example—the shape, size and condition that our body is in at present is already formed and we cannot change it, but what happens to our body in the future is in nobody else’s hands but our very own. Therefore, if one really wishes to be free from suffering one must eliminate and remove its causes which are the defilements, the three basic poisons and the other defilements that arise from these three basic poisons. So, difficult as it is to eliminate the defilements which we have lived with since beginningless time, one must see the defilements for what they are, even though they persist like bad habits and are difficult to remove. While it is very easy to arouse

來,應以這樣的思維去幫助他人,由此而培養自己更多的愛和慈悲。

再進一步說,則是需要有珍貴的菩提心,為了利益所有眾生而誓願成佛,這是所有的快樂和功德的總源頭,也是大乘佛法的精要所在。大乘佛法的基礎是菩提心,必須具足菩提心我們才可以獲得偉大的成就,也許要讓菩提心生起並非易事,但若我們以之為努力的目標,不斷的下功夫便會有極大的功德與利益,有這樣的菩提心即使只幫助某一特定的對象解決某一特定的問題,便已累積了極大的功德利益,更何況菩提心可施用於所有族群與所有問題上,而且又是無止盡的在利益眾生,所以菩提心當然是世間最偉大而殊勝的寶物。

我以菩提心的增長作為我們今日聚會的結論,並且祝福大家此生快樂,心靈修道圓滿,祈願佛法僧三寶的加被永遠與各位同在,謝謝大家!如果你們有任何問題,可於現在提出來,我很樂意回答。

問題:我想請問上師,去除染污是否還有秘密之法?

回答:前面提到的共法是思維其結果,想想如果我們遭受染污,將會為自己帶來甚多的痛苦,是故我們藉由思維其結果,而告訴自己應知控制,提醒自己看住無明,不要依著染污起舞。不共法則是智慧之觀照,發現染污本不存在,而達到清淨本性的境界。至於秘密之法則是指在密續中不同的儀軌,各有不同的方法。

問題:……例如我因某人的行為而生氣,我知道我為何對此人生氣而不是對其他人生氣,我一直在思索這個問題,或許原因

desire, hatred, pride and jealousy, etc., it is very difficult to arouse the good qualities of the mind like loving kindness, compassion, devotion and faith, etc. Causing the defilements to arise within us is very easy. However, being able to see the tiny little causes that gives rise to the defilements so very easily is a difficult thing to do. But we must try our best. There are many different methods by which we can get rid of the causes of these defilements.

There are outer methods, inner methods and secret methods. Of course, the most common outer method is to realize that every sentient being wishes to be free from suffering. If we really wish to be free from suffering then we must remove the defilements which are the causes of all suffering. Since the defilements are what we should really aim to eliminate

出在他的身上而非我。請問法王是否有此種可能?

回答:我認為基本上還是出於自我的執著,由自我執著而產生自他對立。誠如寂天菩薩所說:「此生與此世界所生起的所有痛苦,皆是由於只希望一己得到快樂。」這還只是站在一般世俗立場而言,而非由更深的佛法角度來看。但即使只是由世俗立場言,已可知自私的人將永遠得不到快樂。

問題:可否請法王略談薩迦和格魯派對中觀的看法?例如苟朗巴和宗喀巴所談,可否請您比較他們的觀點見解?

回答:基本上是一樣的,只是方法使用不同罷了。佛陀自己也傳授了許多不同的法門,以適應不同根器的眾生。因為我們有不同的思想,不同的無明,不同的習性,與不同的心理狀態。所以教法若只有一種是不夠的,就好像只用一種藥不能治好所有病一樣。同樣的道理,薩迦

we should not fight with our external, physical enemies but instead with our internal enemies. The defilements are our biggest enemies because whereas no external enemies can send us into the lower realms of hell, defilements can send us into the hell

realms where we would have to suffer unimaginable amounts of suffering. So, the common method to get rid of defilements is to see their causes, that is, what causes the sufferings and what effects the causes have. So, if we see the causes of our sufferings very clearly then we must not cling to but instead remove the causes of suffering. For instance, if we are sick with a certain disease then we must abstain from the causes of the suffering brought about by the disease. Whatever the causes of suffering, whether they are certain kinds of food, or certain kinds of behaviour, it is the cause of that disease that we must

和格魯派當然都一樣,一開始都是先生起菩提心,然後進入實修法,最終的成就也都一樣,只是有一些強調的重點、哲學理論、契入方式、和對中觀的看法的些微不同而已。對某些人來說,可能這個傳承比較適合,而對另一些人而言,或許那個傳承更適合,如是而已。

問題:我們以實際的禪修來克服無明,例如使用金剛薩埵的修持或其它類似的法門。雖然我們早上修了這個法,可是到晚上卻仍然陷入同樣的無明中。在這種情形下,我們應該持續修持這個法或另試他法?

回答:在座上有所謂的禪定、瑜珈等修持,在下座後又有日用常行的修持。你或許沒有使用座下修持功夫所致,如果只有座上的禪修、觀想,以及持咒等等是不夠的,還須要在下座後用方法,最少必須專注並牢記因果和觀照等等。

remove. Otherwise, even though we undergo treatment for the disease, if we keep ignoring the cause of the disease then time and time again we will continue to suffer the ravages of the disease and not get better. Similarly if one really wishes to be free from suffering then one must see the defilements as our biggest and worst enemy with whom we must fight, for in this way we will try to abstain, reduce and eliminate the defilements and instead try to develop all the positive aspects of the qualities of the mind. Of course, these are the common methods.

The uncommon methods are fighting the defilements using inner methods, through the wisdom aspect. In this method, when the defilements arise, instead of following the

問題:能否請法王多談一些有關「忿怒」,我一直有此問題。「忿怒」是否就所有情況言,都是負面的,例如我發現某人極須幫助,但是這個人把情況弄得幾乎沒辦法幫他,而且他的情緒又轉變為不穩定,此時忿怒是否仍是一種負面的無明,有沒有任何正面的作用存在?

回答:是的,最重要的是動機,如果你的動機是純正的,你因為想對他作真正的幫助,而他又是需要用憤怒方式教導的人,此時忿怒便是需要的。由於你是想要利益那個人,所以雖然外顯的形式是負面的,但是由於發心是清淨的,所以結果也是清淨而非負面。相反的情形是外顯雖為善行,但發心並不清淨,其結果當然是負面的。所以不論我們的作為是什麼,不論所修持的是什麼,重點在於發心,因為結果會如何,會導向何處,皆依我們的發心而定。

impure or the defilement thought we must take action and create our own karma, by turning inwards and trying to see where the defilement comes from. For instance, take anger: normally when we get angry with a certain person we tend to think it is that person’s fault and we also tend to continuously think of what he has done to us. The more we think about the situation the worse it becomes, until finally the situation is blown out of proportion . Finally the anger becomes so great that we take action against that person. In this method, instead of following that initial thought towards anger, one turns back and tries to examine where the anger came from, which part of the body the anger came from and we try to see from where it all started. Which part of the body does the anger rise from, where is it contained and what is it's nature are the questions to which we should seek answers. We must try to investigate or try to examine the anger. Then finally, we will discover that we cannot find any concrete thing, anything of substance that we can call anger that we can hold on to.We cannot say what shape and color anger is, where it is, and so on. Therefore, in this method you examine the anger itself and then in this more uncommon method the wisdom that we find naturally sort of calms us down and eliminates our anger. Both in the method aspect as well as in the wisdom aspect we try to see the defilements as the fault and cause of suffering, the defilements as the enemy, the defilements as something that we must try to avoid and eliminate.

So, instead we must try to develop good qualities of the mind like loving kindness and compassion because we ourselves along with every sentient being wish to achieve happiness. When we think of others we must also develop the thought that only by helping others will we be able to achieve our own happiness. In this way we will gradually develop more loving kindness and compassion to generate the precious bodhicitta or the enlightenment thought, which is the wish to attain enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings. This enlightenment thought or bodhicitta is the source of all happiness and benefit and is the essence and root of the Mahayana teachings, whose basic teaching is in fact to cultivate and arouse the enlightenment thought. Even though we cannot immediately arouse bodhicitta within ourselves, making it a goal to arouse the enlightenment thought has great merit and great benefit. This is because bodhicitta is wished for limitless sentient beings without exception in order for them to have every form of suffering removed and every possible good quality produced. Generating the enlightenment thought is greatly meritorious because just helping a certain section of people with a particular type of problem has great merit, so surely cultivating bodhicitta for the benefit of all sentient beings has greater benefit and greater merit.

So with this now, I conclude my talk and wish all of you happiness in this life and complete success in your spiritual path and may the blessings of the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha be with you now and always. Thank you.

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